During last week’s group gathering, each individual was assigned a specific category. From this, we were to research the major events of the time periods. I have chosen the topic ‘Art & Design’ primarily because it consists of major artistic movements and events which I am interested in, therefore this is the category I will focus on.
★Art & Design Research
Tonalism was an artistic style which focused on painting landscape forms with an overall tone of colored atmosphere or mist. Dark, neutral hues such as gray, brown or blue, often dominated compositions by artists associated with the style
Russian symbolism was an intellectual and artistic movement which represented the Russian branch of the symbolist movement in European art, and was mostly known for its contributions to Russian poetry.
-Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider)
Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of artists from the Neue Künstlervereinigung München in Munich, Germany. A movement lasting from 1911 to 1914, fundamental to Expressionism.
Cubism was pioneered by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque during the 20th century. It was an avant-grade movement.that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. In cubist artworks, objects are broken up, analyzed, and re-assembled in an abstracted form
The term Orphism or Orphic Cubism was coined by the French poet Guillaume Apollinaire, was a little known art movement during the time of Cubism that focused on pure abstraction and bright colors influenced by Fauvism and the dye chemist Eugène Chevreul.
Futurism was an artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century. It emphasized and glorified themes associated with contemporary concepts of the future, including speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as the car, the airplane and the industrial city.
Russian Futurist painters adopted the forms of Cubism and combined them with the Italian Futurists’ representation of movement.
The Russian avant-garde is an umbrella term used to define the large, influential wave of modern art that flourished in Russia.
Der Hagenbund or Künstlerbund Hagen was a group of Austrian artists.The group’s name derived from the name Herr Hagen, the proprietor of an inn in Vienna which they frequented.
Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas.
The Rayonists sought an art that floated beyond abstraction, outside of time and space, and to break the barriers between the artist and the public. They derived the name from the use of dynamic rays of contrasting color, representing lines of reflected light .
Synchromism is based on the idea that colour and sound are similar phenomena, and that the colors in a painting can be orchestrated in the same harmonious way that a composer arranges notes in a symphony.
Universal Flowering is the name given by Pavel Filonov to his system of analytical art. The system arose from cubo-futurist experiments and works. It is recognised by very dense, minutely facetted, and relatively flat surfaces created by working from the particular to the general, this is done by using the smallest of brushes and the sharpest of pencils.
An offshoot of Cubism.
Biomorphism is an art movement which consists of patterns artistic design elements on naturally occurring patterns or shapes reminiscent of nature.
An art movement which focused on fundamental geometric forms .
★1910 in art
-Robert Delaunay marries Sonia Terk
-Bronze sculptor Robert Kionsek joins the Berlin workshop of Ferdinand Preiss to form the PK firm; the two men combine their specialties to produce sculptures in bronze and ivory.
-Umberto Boccioni – The City Rises
-Pierre Bonnard – Girl with Parrot
-Georges Braque – Violin and Candlestick
-Henri-Edmond Cross – Cypresses at Cagnes
-Salvador Dalí – Landscape Near Figueras
-Lyonel Feininger – Straße im Dämmern
-Goscombe John – The Boy Scout
-Wassily Kandinsky – Improvisation 7
-L. S. Lowry – Clifton Junction Morning
-Bertram Mackennal – Profile head of King George V for British Empire medals and coins
-Henri Matisse – Dance
-William Orpen – Self Portrait
-Pablo Picasso – Portrait of Daniel-Henry Kahnweiler
-January 6 – Wright Morris, American novelist, photographer, and essayist
-January 29 – Colin Middleton, Irish artist
-February 20 – Julian Trevelyan, English printmaker
-March 10 – David Rose, American animator
-March 18 – Leonard Bocour, paint-maker, painter
-April 24 – Fuller Potter, American Abstract expressionist artist
Edward Wesson, English watercolour artist
-Hugh Casson, British architect, interior designer, artist, writer and broadcaster
-Franz Kline, painter
-June 6 – Hélène de Beauvoir, French painter
C. C. Beck, American cartoonist and comic book artist
Fernand Fonssagrives, French photographer
-June 17 – Raymond Poïvet, French cartoonist
★1911 in art
-February 2 – First issue of Franz Pfemfert’s Die Aktion
-May 11 – A Futurist exhibition in Milan is the first of efforts by the group to make its theories concrete
-August 21 – Mona Lisa stolen from the Musée du Louvre
-Creation of Der Blaue Reiter Group (first exhibition opens December 18 in Munich)
-Creation of the Puteaux Group
-Creation of the Camden Town Group
-One-man show by Eugeniusz Żak at Galerie Druet
-Umberto Boccioni – The Street Enters the House
-Carlo Carrà – The Funeral of the Anarchist Galli
-Marc Chagall – I and the Village
-Giorgio de Chirico – The Nostalgia of the Infinite
-Robert Delaunay – Eiffel Tower
-Lydia Field Emmet – Olivia
-Jacob Epstein – Oscar Wilde Memorial
-Alfons Karpiński – The Parisian Street
-Henri Matisse – L’Atelier Rouge
-Piet Mondrian – Gray Tree
-Emil Nolde – Maskenstilleben (“Masks Still Life”)
-Pablo Picasso – The Accordionist
-March 17 – David Park, American painter
-May 14 – Carl Abrahams, Jamaican painter
-May 25 – Will Barnet, American painter, printmaker
-August 10 – Bruce Ariss, American artist
-September 2 – Romare Bearden, American painter, printmaker
-October 9 – Joe Rosenthal, American Pulitzer Prize-winning photographer
-November 11 – Roberto Matta, Chilean painter
-November 25 – Roelof Frankot, Dutch painter
-December 25 – Louise Bourgeois, French painter and sculptor.
★1912 in art
-Jean Metzinger and Albert Gleizes publish the first major treatise on Cubism, entitled Du Cubisme.
-William Zorach marries Marguerite Thompson.
-René Lalique stages his first exhibit of his glasswares — as does Maurice Marinot.
-Vasilly Kandinsky’s experimental theater composition The Yellow Sound is published in The Blue Rider Almanac
-David Bomberg – Vision of Ezekiel
-Pierre Bonnard – St Tropez, Pier
-Paul Émile Chabas – September Morn
-Marcel Duchamp – Nude Descending a Staircase, No. 2
-Lydia Field Emmet – Self Portrait
-Fernand Léger – La Fumée (Smoke)
-Pablo Picasso – Violon, verre, pipe et encrier
-T. F. Simon – Second Hand Booksellers, Spring
-January 7 – Charles Addams, American cartoonist
-January 28 – Jackson Pollock, American painter
-February 7 – Russell Drysdale, Australian artist
-March 4 – Afro Basaldella, Italian painter
-March 22 – Agnes Martin, Canadian-American painter
-April 14 – Robert Doisneau, French photographer
-June 4 – Robert Jacobsen, Danish sculptor and painter
-June 11 – William Baziotes, painter
★1913 in art
-February 17 – The Armory Show opens in New York City.
-The London Group formed and holds its first exhibition
-Omega Workshops established in London by Roger Fry
-Giorgio De Chirico – The Anxious Journey Pavel Filonov – The Banquet of Kings
-Laura Knight – Self Portrait with Nude
-Fernand Léger – Contrasting Forms
-Henri Matisse – Open Window, Tangier
-Pablo Picasso –Guitar (Musée Picasso, Paris)
-Karl Bitter – Carl Schurz Monument, New York City
Pietro Porcelli – The Explorers’ Monument, Fremantle, Western Australia
-March 12 – Max Leognany, French artist
-March 19 – Mary Henry, painter
-March 23 – Abidin Dino, Turkish artist
-May 27 – Wols, painter and draughtsman
-July 12 – Roger Testu, French cartoonist
-July 27 – Philip Guston, Canadian painter and printmaker
-1 September – Ludwig Merwart, Austrian painter and graphic artist
-September 25 – Tony O’Malley, Irish painter
-September 28 – Warja Honegger-Lavater, Swiss artist and illustrator
-October 22 – Robert Capa, war photographer
-December 13 – Vladimir Tretchikoff, Russian artist
-December 24 – Ad Reinhardt, painter and writer
★1914 in art
-The Baltimore Museum of Art is founded at Johns Hopkins University.
-Nina Hamnett and Amedeo Modigliani meet for the first time in Montparnasse.
-Clive Bell’s formalist study Art published.
-March–June – Rebel Art Centre run in London by Wyndham Lewis
-June – First issue published of the Vorticist literary magazine BLAST
-David Bomberg – The Mud Bath
-Antoine Bourdelle – Dying Centaur
-Giorgio de Chirico
La Nostalgie du poete
-The Mystery and Melancholy of a Street
-The Song of Love
-Pavel Filonov – Holy Family
-Marsden Hartley – Portrait of a German Officer
-Paul Klee- In the Style of Kairouan
-Alfred Munnings – Setting off: Huntsman and Hounds
-Ernst Barlach – Der Rächer
-Jacob Epstein – The Rock Drill
-5 July – Jean Tabaud, French artist
-27 July – Emerson Woelffer, American painter
-15 August – Paul Rand, American graphic designer
-20 August – Yann Goulet, French sculptor
-18 September – Jack Cardiff, photographer and cinematographer.
-17 October – Jerry Siegel, American comic book artist
-5 November – Alton Tobey, American painter, historical artist, muralist, portraitist, illustrator, and teacher
-16 December – O. Winston Link, American photographer.
-21 December – Ivan Generalić, Croatian naïve art painter
★1915 in art
-Harper’s Bazaar hires Erté to design its covers.
-Ambrose Heal and others found the Design and Industries Association in London
-The only Vorticist exhibition is staged, at the Doré Gallery in London.
-Frank Weston Benson – Red and Gold
-Giorgio de Chirico – The Double Dream of Spring
-Isaac Rosenberg – Self-portrait
-Anders Zorn – Self-portrait in Red
-Marcel Duchamp – begins producing readymades
-Henri Matisse – Le rideau jaune
-Carl Larsson – Midvinterblot
-Wyndham Lewis – The Crowd
-C. R. W. Nevinson – La Mitrailleuse
-Konstantin Yuon – March Sun
–May 3 – Richard Lippold, American sculptor
-May 20 – Sam Golden, paint maker
-June 17 – Gunther Gerzso, abstract painter
-August 28 – Tasha Tudor, American illustrator
-October 13 – Terry Frost, English artist noted for his abstracts
-October 13 – Ricco Wassmer, Swiss painter
-October 24 – Bob Kane, American comic book artist and writer
-November 9 – André François, French cartoonist